Human Mobility Model in Disaster Areas


TP-D is a mobility model of pedestrians in the theme parks for disaster scenarios. The model is based on the characteristics of theme parks, modeling the theme park environment, and the mobility behaviors of the pedestrians. Real theme park maps are used for modeling the environment with roads, physical obstacles, and simulating disaster events.

The mobility decisions of the visitors are based on evacuation goal with limited knowledge and the obstacles. Application of the social force concept helps modeling the impact of the social interactions on the flows of the crowd. The model is evaluated by comparison with the existing mobility models and GPS traces of theme park visitors.


Realistic mobility simulation is critical for evaluating performance of communication networks. Although various models exist, the currently used models in network simulations do not capture the changes in pedestrian behavior considering specific scenarios.

For the disaster scenarios, the mobility in theme parks has unique characteristics and requires scenario-specific mobility modeling. In the scenario, the main goal of the operation is safe evacuation of the visitors from the disaster areas.


  • Capturing the network characteristics and diffusion of the mobile nodes in networks
  • Focusing on human walks due to limited vehicle use in environments such as theme parks

Outcomes of our model are useful for

  • Simulations of opportunistic social networks
  • Disaster management strategies


  • A realistic scenario-specific mobility model
  • Modeling macro and micro mobility behaviors of the people during evacuation
  • A baseline for the more sophisticated problem of disaster mobility in scenarios such as urban environments

Downloads & Media

  • Download IEEE Communications Magazine article: Article
  • Download IEEE GLOBECOM'13 conference paper: Paper
  • Download IEEE GLOBECOM'13 conference presentation: Presentation
  • Link to GitHub repository for the simulation: Source Code

Simulation of the Magic Kingdom Park

The video below shows the simulation for evacuation of 2000 theme park visitors during a disaster.

Related Publications

  • G. Solmaz and D. Turgut. “Modeling Pedestrian Mobility in Disaster Areas.” Accepted to Pervasive and Mobile Computing (PMC) Journal, May 2017.

  • G. Solmaz and D. Turgut. “Pedestrian Mobility in Theme Park Disasters.” In IEEE Communications Magazine, vol. 53, no. 7, pp.172-177, July 2015.
    BibTeX   Article  

  • G. Solmaz and D. Turgut. “Theme Park Mobility in Disaster Scenarios.” In Proceedings of IEEE GLOBECOM'13, pp. 377-382, December 2013.
    BibTeX   Presentation   Paper  
Back to research home page